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Media regulation: United Kingdom

 

 

Political Parties, Elections and Referendums Act 2000

 

2000 Chapter 41 -

PART I, THE ELECTORAL COMMISSION -

Commission's general functions

 

Broadcasters to have regard to Commission's views on party political broadcasts.

11. - (1) In section 36 of the Broadcasting Act 1990 (independent television services: party political broadcasts), after subsection (4) there shall be inserted- (5) Before making any rules for the purposes of this section the Commission shall have regard to any views expressed by the Electoral Commission.

(2) In section 107 of that Act (independent sound broadcasting services: party political broadcasts), after subsection (3) there shall be inserted- (4) Before making any rules for the purposes of this section the Authority shall have regard to any views expressed by the Electoral Commission.

(3) The British Broadcasting Corporation and Sianel Pedwar Cymru shall each, in determining its policy with respect to party political broadcasts, have regard to any views expressed by the Electoral Commission for the purposes of this subsection.

 

Education about electoral and democratic systems.

13. - (1) The Commission shall promote public awareness of-  

(a) current electoral systems in the United Kingdom and any pending such systems, together with such matters connected with any such existing or pending systems as the Commission may determine;

(b) current systems of local government and national government in the United Kingdom and any pending such systems; and

(c) the institutions of the European Union.

(2) For the purposes of subsection (1) any system such as is mentioned in paragraph (a) or (b) of that subsection is pending at a time when arrangements for giving effect to it have been made by any enactment but the arrangements are not yet in force.

(3) Subsection (1) does not apply in relation to local government elections, or to local government, in Scotland; but in paragraph (b) of that subsection the reference to national government includes (in addition to the government of the United Kingdom) the government of parts of the United Kingdom for which there are devolved legislatures.

(4) The Commission shall perform their functions under subsection (1) in such

manner as they think fit but may, in particular, do so by-

(a) carrying out programmes of education or information to promote public awareness of any of the matters mentioned in subsection (1); or

(b) making grants to other persons or bodies for the purpose of enabling them to carry out such programmes.

(5) Any grant under subsection (4)(b) may be made s ubject to such conditions as

the Commission consider appropriate.

(6) The total expenditure incurred in any financial year by the Commission in performing their functions under subsection (1) (whether by making grants or otherwise) shall not exceed such sum as is for the time being specified for the purposes of this subsection by an order made by the Secretary of State with the consent of the Treasury.

(7) The Scottish Ministers may by order provide that, despite subsection (3), the Commission may perform the functions conferred by this section in relation to local government elections, or to local government, in Scotland.

(8) Subsection (6) shall not apply to the expenditure incurred by the Commission in performing their functions exercisable by virtue of an order made by the Scottish Ministers under subsection (7); but such expenditure shall not exceed such sum as is for the time being specified for the purposes of this subsection in an order made by the Scottish Ministers.

(9) The Scottish Ministers shall reimburse the Commission for any expenditure incurred by them which is attributable to the exercise of any of functions mentioned in subsection (8).

(10) Section 156(5) shall apply to an order made by the Scottish Ministers under this section as it applies to an order made by the Secretary of State under this Act and the reference in that section to enactments shall include a reference to any enactment comprised in or in an instrument made under an Act of the Scottish Parliament.

(11) The power of the Scottish Ministers to make an order under this section shall be exercisable by statutory instrument subject to annulment in pursuance of a resolution of the Scottish Parliament.

 

PART II, REGISTRATION OF POLITICAL PARTIES

Supplemental

 

Party political broadcasts

37. - (1) A broadcaster shall not include in its broadcasting services any party political broadcast made on behalf of a party which is not a registered party.

(2) In this Act "broadcaster" means-

(a) the holder of a licence under the Broadcasting Act 1990 or 1996 ,

(b) the British Broadcasting Corporation, or

(c) Sianel Pedwar Cymru.

 

PART X, MISCELLANEOUS AND GENERAL

Broadcasting during election period

Broadcasting of local items during election period. 144. For section 93 of the Representation of the People Act 1983 there shall be substituted-

Broadcasting of local items during election period.

93. - (1) Each broadcasting authority shall adopt a code of practice with respect to the participation of candidates at a parliamentary or local government election in items about the constituency or electoral area in question which are included in relevant services during the election period.

(2) The code for the time being adopted by a broadcasting authority under this section shall be eiher-

(a) a code drawn up by that authority, whether on their own or jointly with one or more other broadcasting authorities, or

(b) a code drawn up by one or more other such authorities; and a broadcasting authority shall from time to time consider whether the code for the time being so adopted by them should be replaced by a further code falling within paragraph (a) or (b).

(3) Before drawing up a code under this section a broadcasting authority shall have regard to any views expressed by the Electoral Commission for the purposes of this subsection; and any such code may make different provision for different cases.

(4) The Independent Television Commission and the Radio Authority shall each do all that they can to secure that the code for the time being adopted by them under this section is observed in the provision of relevant services; and the British Broadcasting Corporation and Sianel Pedwar Cymru shall each observe in the provision of relevant services the code so adopted by them.

(5) For the purposes of subsection (1) "the election period", in relation to an election, means the period beginning-

(a) (if a parliamentary general election) with the date of the dissolution of Parliament or any earlier time at which Her Majesty's intention to dissolve Parliament is announced,

(b) (if a parliamentary by-election) with the date of the issue of the writ for the election or any earlier date on which a certificate of the vacancy is notified in the London Gazette in accordance with the Recess Elections Act 1975, or

 (c) (if a local government election) with the last date for publication of notice of the election, and ending with the close of the poll.

(6) In this section-

"broadcasting authority" means the British Broadcasting Corporation, the Independent Television Commission, the Radio Authority or Sianel Pedwar Cymru;

"candidate", in relation to an election, means a candidate standing nominated at the election or included in a list of candidates submitted in connection with it;

"relevant services"-

(a) in relation to the British Broadcasting Corporation or Sianel Pedwar Cymru, means services broadcast by that body;

(b) in relation to the Independent Television Commission, means services licensed under Part I of the Broadcasting Act 1990 or Part I of the Broadcasting Act 1996; and

(c) in relation to the Radio Authority, means services licensed under Part III of the Broadcasting Act 1990 or Part II of the Broadcasting Act 1996.

 

 

Broadcasting Act 1990 (c. 42)

 

Part I - Independent Television Services

Party political broadcasts.

36.—(1) Subject to subsection (2), any regional Channel 3 licence or licence to provide Channel 4 or 5 shall include—

(a) conditions requiring the licence holder to include party political broadcasts in the licensed service; and

(b) conditions requiring the licence holder to observe such rules with respect to party political broadcasts as the Commission may determine.

(2) Where any determination under section 28(3) is in force, a licence to provide Channel 5 may (but need not) include any such conditions as are mentioned in subsection (1)(a) and (b).

(3) Without prejudice to the generality of paragraph (b) of subsection (1), the Commission may determine for the purposes of that subsection—

(a) the political parties on whose behalf party political broadcasts may be made; and

(b) in relation to any political party on whose behalf such broadcasts may be made, the length and frequency of such broadcasts.

(4) Any rules made by the Commission for the purposes of this section may make different provision for different cases or circumstances.

 

Part III - Independent Radio Services

Party political broadcasts.

107.—(1) A national licence shall include—

(a) conditions requiring the licence holder to include party political broadcasts in the licensed service; and

(b) conditions requiring the licence holder to observe such rules with respect to party political broadcasts as the Authority may determine.

(2) Without prejudice to the generality of paragraph (b) of subsection (1), the Authority may determine for the purposes of that subsection—

(a) the political parties on whose behalf party political broadcasts may be made; and

(b) in relation to any political party on whose behalf such broadcasts may be made, the length and frequency of such broadcasts.

(3) Any rules made by the Authority for the purposes of this section may make different provision for different cases or circumstances.

 

The Regulators -- Independent Television Commission and Radio Authority

The Independent Television Commission(ITC) and the Radio Authority(RA) explain and interpret the law and the obligations arising in law from their respective Programme Codes. Among the matters covered are the definitions, meaning and content of the main terms in the broadcasting law, as required for implementation of the rules in practice. With the exception of the Party Political Broadcasts (PPBs), other issues are treated by both bodies so as to ensure that the broadcasters should converge upon certain principles. The broadcasters are less told what to do but rather shown ways that they can achieve the goals set for them in law.

The broad thrust of regulations are similar or identical for both radio and television.

The Radio Authority tends to be more flexible on the “external” characteristics of party broadcasts. That is to say that the length and scheduling of PPBs are not defined in the Programme Code as is the case for television.

 

THE ITC PROGRAMME CODE JANUARY 2002

SECTION THREE

Impartiality

(a) As stated in the Foreword, the Broadcasting Act 1990 makes it the statutory duty of the ITC to draw up, and from time to time review, a code giving guidance as to the rules to be observed for the purpose of preserving due impartiality on the part of licensees as respects matters of political or industrial controversy or relating to current public policy.

The Impartiality Code relates specifically to Section 6(1)(c) of the Act and is drawn up in accordance with Section 6(3), 6(5) and 6(6). It is published under Section 6(7).

(b) For ease of reference, guidelines relating to the requirement under Section 6(1)(b) that news be presented with due accuracy and impartiality and the requirement under

Section 6(4) relating to the views and opinions of persons providing a licensed service are also incorporated here. These are based on the ITC’s code making powers under Section 7(1)(c) of the Act as well as those deriving from Section 6(3). Section 47 of the Act allows the ITC to substitute for Section 6(1)(c) a modified requirement in respect of local licensable programme services. Guidance is given in Section 3.8 of the Code.

(c) This section refers mainly to programmes covered by the impartiality requirements: i.e. those dealing with matters of political or industrial controversy, and current public

policy. The only exceptions to this are in relation to news (3.4), where the due accuracy requirement relates to news on all topics, and to appearances by politicians and other political activists.

 

3.1 Due impartiality

The Broadcasting Act requires the ITC to do all that it can to secure 'that due impartiality is preserved on the part of the person providing the service as respects matters of political or industrial controversy or relating to current public policy'.

Under the Act, matters relating to current political issues, those of a current industrial relations nature, and current public policy which is subject to opposing points of view should be regarded as ‘controversial’. The due impartiality requirement does not apply to every topic where differences of opinion may exist.

The term 'due' is significant; it should be interpreted as meaning adequate or appropriate to the nature of the subject and the type of programme. While the requirement of due impartiality applies to all areas of controversy covered by the Act, it does not mean that broadcasters have to be absolutely neutral on every controversial issue. And while broadcasters should deal even-handedly with opposing points of view in the arena of democratic debate, it does not mean that 'balance' is required in any simple mathematical sense or that equal time must be given to each opposing point of view.

Opinion should be clearly distinguished from fact. Judgement will always be called for. The requirement will also vary with the type of programme; the considerations applying to drama, for example, are different from those applying to current affairs programmes.

Licensees transmitting to countries other than the UK should be aware that the due impartiality requirement applies to them no less than to licensees operating solely within the UK. The provision that due impartiality must be preserved 'on the part of the person providing the service' is also significant. Subject to the safeguards contained in this Code, the provision allows for individual contributors to put forward what may be a personal or subjective view, or for such views to be reflected in a programme. It is for each licensee, acting through the executives who commission and schedule programmes, to ensure the service they provide deals fairly with matters of political or industrial controversy, or current public policy.

3.1(i) Editorialising

The Act places the additional duty on the ITC to do what it can to secure the exclusion of the licensee's views and opinions on controversial matters other than the provision of programme services. If, in a programme included in a licensed service, a director or officer of a licensee does express an opinion on a controversial matter other than the provision of programme

services, it must be in a context which makes clear that the opinion expressed is not that of the licensee.

Speeches in Parliament are exempt from this provision.

 

3.2 Impartiality over time

There are times when licensees will need to ensure that the principal opposing viewpoints are reflected in a single programme or programme item, either because it is not likely that the licensee will soon return to the subject, or because the issues involved are of current and active controversy. At other times, a narrower range of views may be appropriate within individual programmes. The ITC recognises that such issues call for editorial judgement based on the particular circumstances and that an impartial programme service does not necessarily have to ensure that in a single programme,or programme item, all sides have an opportunity to speak.

3.2(i) The 'series' provision

The Broadcasting Act's requirements about impartiality allow a series of programmes to be considered as a whole. For this purpose, the ITC defines a series as more than one programme broadcast in the same service, each one of which is clearly linked to the other(s) and which deal with the same or related issues.

It is not sufficient to claim that programmes on other channels or other media will ensure that opposing views will be heard.

Some series consist of programmes broadcast at regular intervals under the same title, but which may deal with widely disparate issues from one edition to the next. In this case, each programme should normally aim to be impartial in itself. Alternatively,

producers may choose to deal with the same subject over two or more programmes or, for instance, offer separate in-depth interviews to the leaders of political parties and in this way achieve impartiality over time.

The intention to achieve impartiality in this way should be planned in advance and,

wherever practicable, made clear to viewers.

 

3.3 Programme content: 'major matters'

The Act requires the Code to take particular account of the impartiality due to major matters of political or industrial controversy or relating to current public policy.

What is a major matter will vary according to the current public and political agenda, whether national or regional. It would in most circumstances include political or industrial issues of national importance, such as the UK’s role in the European Union, or significant legislation currently passing through Parliament. For licensees serving a local or regional audience, it would also include issues of comparable importance within their region. In dealing with major matters of controversy, licensees must ensure that justice is done to a full range of significant views and perspectives during the period in which the controversy is active.

The treatment of major matters should not obscure the fact that due impartiality is required on all matters of political or industrial controversy or current public policy. The ways in which this may be achieved in relation to different programme types is dealt with in the following sections.

 

3.4 News

In addition to the general requirements relating to matters of political or industrial controversy or current public policy, the Act requires that any news, given in whatever form, must be presented with due accuracy and impartiality.

Reporting should be dispassionate and news judgements based on the need to give viewers an even-handed account of events. In reporting on matters of industrial or political controversy, the main differing views on the matter should be given their due weight in the period during which the controversy is active. Editorial discretion will determine whether a range of conflicting views is included within a single news item  or whether it is acceptable to spread them over a series of bulletins.

 

3.5 Personal view programmes

Programmes in which an individual contributor is given the opportunity to put forward his or her own views, without necessarily referring to opposing views have a valuable place in the schedules. Personal view programmes on ‘controversial’ matters covered in the act are, however, subject to specific safeguards in order to ensure compliance with the general provisions relating to due impartiality.

The safeguards, which apply to all personal view programmes on ‘controversial’ matters, are as follows:

(a) Each programme must be clearly identified as giving a personal view both in advance announcements and at the start of the programme itself.

 (b) Facts must be respected, and licensees have an obligation to do what they can to ensure that the opinions expressed, however partial, do not rest upon false evidence.

(c) A suitable opportunity for response to the programme should be provided, where appropriate, for example in a right to reply programme or in a pre-arranged discussion programme.

 

3.5(i) Personal view programmes: the timescale

As with current affairs and documentary programmes, a series of personal view programmes has no need to give equal time to every relevant point of view. But licensees should take care to ensure that a sufficiently broad range of views is expressed in any series of such programmes, and across the service as a whole during each calendar year, taking account of the frequency of the programmes within the series, the length of individual programmes and the nature of the subject matter.

For series which are a regular fixture in the schedules, such as a nightly, weekly or monthly access programme, the views expressed on controversial matters should be kept in reasonable balance throughout the progress of the series and licensees must be   able to demonstrate this.

For an occasional series of programmes dealing with different aspects of the same subject matter it will normally be necessary to maintain impartiality within the series.

Occasionally, however, the series itself may take a particular approach to a controversial  issue or comprise a group of programmes presented from the same personal viewpoint, perhaps reflecting an original body of thought or research which may not readily be balanced. The ITC recognises that such series are likely to have a long gestation period and are unlikely to be included in the schedules very often.

 

3.6 Interviews and discussions on controversial topics

Sometimes, interviewees - including representatives of the Government - will seek to impose their own conditions on the conduct and use of an interview. Such requests are not improper in themselves, but care should be taken to ensure that what is included in the programme is determined by editorial criteria and not as the result of pressure. Licensees should consider whether, in the interests of due impartiality and fairness, they should disclose such agreements to viewers at the time of the broadcast. In programmes dealing with political issues the participants do not necessarily have to be speakers from the main political parties. The obligation to ensure due impartiality relates to issues, not to parties, and some important issues do not divide opinion along existing party lines. Indeed there are occasions when it is preferable to confine discussion to representatives of only one party; the opportunity can be taken to investigate a particular approach to an issue in depth, provided that overall in a series of programmes impartiality is maintained. On the other hand there are many issues on which the attitudes of the parties are clear cut and distinct, recognisably part of the current political debate. In those cases speakers of known party allegiance should be chosen by the broadcasters.For the provisions relating to other aspects of the conduct of interviews, see Section 2.5.

For the provisions relating to Impartiality and Fairness in drama and drama documentary,

see Section 2.12.

 

3.7 Politicians in presentation roles and non-political programmes

Programmes in which politicians and other activists in fields of political and industrial controversy appear outside their normal political role present different problems. Care and discretion are required over the use of such persons to produce or present programmes. Because of the need to preserve due impartiality, no currently active politicians should appear as newscasters, interviewers or reporters in any news programme, unless their use can be clearly justified, in which case their party allegiance should be clearly identified.

Care should be taken in making use of active politicians and political activists to present other programmes, such as studio discussions or current affairs programmes.

Impartiality will normally require that such presenters are drawn from a wide political spectrum.

Guidance on the appearance of candidates in programmes during election periods is given in Section 4.3.

 

3.8 The undue prominence rule for local licensable programme services

Under Section 47(4) of the Broadcasting Act l990 the ITC may modify the provisions of Section 6 in respect of local licensable programme services by substituting in place of Section 6(1)(c) the following:

'(c) that undue prominence is not given in its programmes to the views and opinions of particular persons or bodies on matters of political or industrial controversy or relating to current public policy'.

The ITC will decide on a case by case basis whether the undue prominence requirement (rather than the impartiality requirement) should apply to particular licensees. Any licensee wishing to pursue this should contact the ITC for further guidance.

 

SECTION FOUR

Party Political and Parliamentary Broadcasting

4.1 Party Political and Party Election Broadcasts

Section 36 of the Broadcasting Act 1990 requires the ITC to ensure that Party Political Broadcasts (PPBs) are included in the regional Channel 3 (ITV), Channel 4 and Channel 5 services. This section of the Code reflects the rules which the ITC has determined in accordance with the Act. Within the terms of these rules, the precise allocation of broadcasts is the responsibility of licensees. Unresolved disputes between licensees and any political party, as to the length, frequency, allocation or scheduling of broadcasts, should be referred by the party or the licensee to the ITC.

 

4.1(i) Length of broadcasts

Parties may choose a length of 2’40”, 3’40” or 4’40”.

4.1(ii) Frequency of broadcasts

General election broadcasts will be carried by Channel 3 (ITV), Channel 4 and Channel 5. Broadcasts for the European Parliamentary election will be carried by ITV and Channel 5.

ITV will additionally carry: local election broadcasts in those regions where such elections are taking place; broadcasts in the relevant regions for Scottish Parliament, Welsh Assembly and Northern Ireland Assembly elections; and broadcasts for the major parties around other key events in the political calendar, such as the Queen’s Speech, the Budget and party conferences. Major parties in Great Britain are defined as Labour, Conservative, Liberal Democrats and, in Scotland and Wales respectively, the SNP and Plaid Cymru.

4.1(iii) Allocation of broadcasts

Major parties in Great Britain will normally be offered a series of broadcasts before each election. Other parties may qualify for a broadcast on the basis of contesting one sixth or more of the seats up for election, modified as appropriate for proportional representation systems. Major parties in Britain will be offered one broadcast on each occasion, in relation to other key political events.

The allocation of election broadcasts to Northern Ireland parties will be determined before each election by the relevant licensee.

4.1(iv) Scheduling of broadcasts

Election broadcasts by the Conservatives, Labour, the Liberal Democrats and Northern Ireland parties must be carried in peak-time (6pm to 10.30pm). SNP and Plaid Cymru broadcasts on ITV in Scotland and Wales must also be carried in peak.

Other broadcasts should normally be carried in the period 5.30pm to 11.30pm.

 

4.2 Content of broadcasts

Editorial control of the content of Party Political Broadcasts (PPBs) and Party Election Broadcasts (PEBs) normally rests with the originating political party. However, licensees are responsible to the ITC for ensuring that nothing transmitted breaches the Programme Code, notably the requirements on matters of offence to good taste and decency set out in Section 1. Licensees are recommended to seek an indemnity from the parties against defamation, breach of copyright and similar legal risks. Licensees should issue parties with general guidelines on the acceptability of content (including Code compliance and avoidance of defamation), and technical matters. These guidelines, which are agreed between all relevant broadcasters, are designed to reconcile the editorial standards of the broadcaster, and audience expectations, with the freedom of political parties to convey their political messages.

 

4.3 Programmes at the time of elections

The general provisions of Section 3 of this Code – notably Section 3.3 on ‘major matters’ - apply to all coverage of elections. There is no expectation that the time devoted to all parties and candidates in an election will be equal. Licensees must exercise their judgement, based on factors such as significant levels of previous electoral support, evidence of significant current support, and the number of candidates being fielded by a party. Due weight should be given to coverage of major parties (these are defined in relation to the UK in Section 4.3(i) below). However,   smaller parties and independent candidates may also be among those with significant views and perspectives, to which appropriate coverage may need to be given.

Discussion and analysis of election issues should finish when the polls open. A licensee may not publish the results of any poll it has commissioned or undertaken on polling day itself, until the polls have closed.

Appearances by candidates in UK elections as newsreaders, interviewers or presenters of any type of programme should cease for the election period (which is defined in section 4.3(i) below for Parliamentary and local government elections, and is in other cases a period of one calendar month before the poll). Appearances in non-political programmes, that were planned or scheduled before the election period, may continue, but no new appearances should be arranged and transmitted during the period.

 

4.3(i) Coverage of constituencies at Parliamentary and local government elections in the UK

The restrictions formerly placed by the Representation of the People Act on the participation of candidates in programmes have been removed. It is no longer necessary to secure the agreement of all candidates before any candidate can take part in an item about the relevant constituency, and likely candidates are no longer prevented from taking part in the period between the calling of the election and the close of nominations. Nevertheless, due impartiality must be strictly maintained in coverage of the campaign in any constituency. If any candidate takes part in an item, about a particular constituency, then candidates of each of the major parties should be offered the opportunity to take part. The major parties in Great Britain are defined as Conservative, Labour and Liberal Democrat, and in Scotland and Wales respectively, the SNP and Plaid Cymru. The major parties in Northern Ireland are Democratic Unionist, Sinn Fein, SDLP and Ulster Unionist. It is right to make some distinction between the weight of the contribution from these candidates and others. However, constituency reports or debates should also offer the chance to take part to candidates representing parties with previous significant electoral support (for example parties which have gained seats in other recent elections, or individuals who have been elected before under a different label) or parties with evidence of significant current support.

Any constituency report or discussion after the close of nominations must include a list of all candidates standing, giving first names, surnames and any party allegiance.

This should be conveyed in caption and/or voice-over.

Where a politician is appearing as a speaker on policy matters, care should be taken to avoid allowing him or her the opportunity to make constituency points, when no other candidates will have a similar opportunity.

The Political Parties, Elections and Referendums Act 2000 (see Appendix 4), defines the election period, during which the requirements in this sub-section of the Code must be applied. For a parliamentary general election, the period begins with the announcement of the dissolution of Parliament. For a parliamentary by-election, it begins with the issuing of the writ (or any earlier date notified in the London Gazette).

For local government elections, it is the last date for publication of notice of the election. In all cases, the election period ends with the close of poll.

 

4.3(ii) Coverage of constituencies and wider electoral regions at other elections in the UK

The requirements of the previous sub-section also apply to coverage of constituencies at Scottish Parliament, and Welsh, Northern Ireland and London Assembly elections. The election period for these elections is defined as one calendar month before the poll. If coverage is given to wider electoral regions at these elections, or at the European Parliament election, the criteria outlined in Section 4.3 should be applied, in offering participation to candidates. In these instances, all parties putting up candidates in the given electoral region should be listed, in caption and/or voice-over,  but it is not necessary to list candidates individually.

 

4.4 Use of recordings of Parliamentary proceedings

Parliamentary rules for the use of coverage of proceedings state:

(a) no extracts of Parliamentary proceedings may be used in any light entertainment programme or in a programme of political satire;

(b) subject to paragraph (a) above, extracts of Parliamentary proceedings may be included in broadcast ‘magazine’ programmes which also contain music or humorous features, provided that the different types of items are kept separate;

(c) extracts from Parliamentary proceedings may not be used in party political broadcasts, except where it features a member of the party making the broadcast, and the member’s consent has been obtained; the use of general scenes of either chamber or material featuring exchanges between the parties should not be included;

(d) no extracts of Parliamentary proceedings may be used in any form of advertising, promotion or other form of publicity, except in the form of trailers for programmes which use extracts within the requirement of these guidelines and where the trailers also comply with those requirements; and the user shall at all times comply with all rules of coverage, guidelines and directives laid down from time to time by the relevant select committee of each House in reports issued by them and otherwise.


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